This article reviews the theoretical basis for expecting the presence of carbon-14 in Pliocene to Cambrian carbon from certain creationist viewpoints, and for expecting its absence from a viewpoint proposing a long age of life on Earth. Several conclusions emerge: 1) There is measurable carbon-14 in material that should be "dead" according to standard evolutionary theory; 2) machine error can be eliminated as an explanation for this carbon-14 on experimental grounds; 3) nuclear synthesis of this carbon-14 in situ can be eliminated on theoretical grounds; 4) contamination of fossil material in situ is unlikely but theoretically possible, and is a testable hypothesis; 5) contamination during sample preparation is a significant problem but theoretically soluble; 6) residual activity is most likely indicated by the present data, and if correct, would eliminate an age greater than approximately 100,000 years for life on Earth; and 7) additional experimental evidence cannot eliminate either a short or a long age of life on Earth, but can provide evidence tending to discriminate between the two.
The predictions of the third category of theories regarding carbon-14 in fossil carbon (carbon from such sources as coal, oil, natural gas, wood, or bone) usually match those of the first category, although they are not logically required to do so.
Designed primarily to produce intense beams of radioactive ions that are rich in either neutrons or protons, the ISL could help expand the number of different atomic nuclei available for study and possible exploitation from the approximately 270 that Nature provides to more than 5,000.
" I've just added the following paragraph about Heller's relationship with Wasserburg:"In the acknowledgments section of a book John Heller wrote on the Shroud, he mentioned colleagues who were 'generously obliging in providing input' (Report On The Shroud Of Turin [Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1984], viii). Wasserberg, California Institute of Technology'. (The ' Wasserberg' misspelling of the name seems to be common, sometimes even appearing at Caltech's web site, for example.) Since the original edition of the book was published in 1983, Heller's comments demonstrate that he was in contact with Wasserburg right around the time of the 1982 test.
And he was in contact with Wasserburg on matters pertaining to the Shroud." I've added the following paragraph:"Both Adler, in the 1988 tape, and D' Muhala, in his 1995 presentation, refer to the scientist in question as ' Jerry'.
Radiocarbon dating uses the naturally occurring carbon-14 isotope as an isotopic label. When the atomic nucleus of an isotope is unstable, compounds containing this isotope are radioactive. The principle behind the use of radioactive tracers is that an atom in a chemical compound is replaced by another atom, of the same chemical element.
The substituting atom, however, is a radioactive isotope. The power of the technique is due to the fact that radioactive decay is much more energetic than chemical reactions.